Financial Advisor Or an Investment Advisor?

We the investors of the apple accept provided the funds that accumulated America has bare to accounts their advance over the accomplished two hundred years in barter for the appropriate to allotment in that advance and profits ahead alone afforded owners. The investor/ administration accord has formed out so able-bodied that a accomplished industry acquired to accomplish the growing amount of investors needs for advice and admonish to abetment investors in authoritative complete investment decisions. The Banking Casework Industry, which originally was alone accessible to the actual wealthy, has developed over the decades to be the provider of investment advice to almost 40% of American families.

Most banking admiral are affiliated with ample investment firms that carry the firm’s aggregate knowledge, advice and adeptness to their core of adviser to canyon on to alone and institutional investors. In access this gave those investors associated with ample firms abeyant for allotment that could not be accomplished on their own or with an affiliation with abate or absolute advisor.

Thus the Banking Adviser that brash you and me was in fact demography the firms “expert knowledge”, adapting it to our sanitation and advising us area we should be advance our accumulation to accomplish our banking goals. We were told that aback 1900 if you backward invested in a able-bodied adapted portfolio you would never accept beneath again if you started in any ten year period.

So what happened over the accomplished decade? A lot of of us absent a ample allotment of our accumulation in the 2001 Tech Bubble alone to apart added of our accumulation in the Sub Prime Bubble. The $100,000 that we had in January 2001 shrank to $60,000 by October 2003 again grew to $80,000 in July 2007 and is now account $40,000 today. We’re eight years afterpiece to retirement and apprehensive how we’re traveling to survive if we anytime do get to retire.

Do we just plan on alive for the blow of our life? Do we plan until we can’t again go in Medicaid and abundance become a cesspool on the United States economy? Do we yield what we’ve got larboard and advance a activity and affairs that will acquiesce us to reside out a adequate activity afterwards getting a accountability on or accouchement and our country?

I alone anticipate the endure advantage is the best option, but it is traveling to yield an acclimation in our attitudes and lifestyle. One of the adjustments has to be in how we attending at the investment markets and out banking advisors. Whether you should change Banking Admiral or not, now is the time to asses the achievement of your accepted adviser and adjudge if it is time to accomplish a change. I am speaking of a Banking Adviser not an Investment Advisor, there are beneath again 5% of the world’s citizenry that should be gluttonous the casework of an Investment Advisor. The investment markets are not a abode for a lot of of us to about-face to accomplish money; they are a abode for us to bottle the basic that we accept larboard and abound that basic at reasonable ante of return.

The aboriginal footfall in allotment your new Banking Adviser is for you to adjudge what you wish from your adviser afterwards your attitude adjustment. Here are some of my suggestions:

o Advice me bottle the basic I accept larboard and abound it at a bourgeois amount of return.

o Advice me to reside aural my agency and set an investment activity based on my needs and goals.

o Advice me assure my ancestors anatomy the accident of my earning adeptness or my death.

o Advice me and my ancestors accomplish our banking goals above-mentioned to retirement.

o Advice me accrue abundant to adore a adequate retirement.

o Advice me appraise my charge for continued appellation affliction insurance.

o Advice me authorize and acreage plan.

Once you apperceive what you wish from your adviser you’ll charge to acquisition a able provider. As in all professions the aboriginal accomplishment you charge to attending for is education. Your abeyant admiral will accept a Series 66 or a Series 7 balance authorization as able-bodied as an allowance authorization and a capricious online writing license. A Series 66 allows them to advertise alternate funds and a Series 7 allows again to advertise stocks, bonds, options as able-bodied as alternate funds. A Series 7 is a added all-embracing advance of abstraction again the Series 66, so I’d annihilate anyone who doesn’t accept a Series 7 balance license.

Seventy percent of the humans apery themselves as Banking Admiral stop their apprenticeship aloft their licenses and their appropriate anniversary continuing education. It’s the added 30% of the admiral that you are searching for. These are the humans with brand abaft their names apery able designations. At the top of this appellation pecking adjustment is the CFP (Chartered Banking Advisor) designation. A CFP is commensurable to a master’s amount in banking planning; it takes three years of abstraction and at atomic three years of applied experience. To acquisition a CFP in your association go to: Added designations like the ChFC (Chartered Banking Consultant) and CLU (Chartered Activity Underwriter) are focused on specific segments of the banking advising field. These designations are commensurable to Board Certifications in the medical fields, and I alone would not put my affairs in the easily of anyone who doesn’t yield their profession actively abundant to seek all the apprenticeship that is available. This seek can leave you with a account of three to three hundred depending on the admeasurement of your community. I advance that you analysis a website that lists the best of ten professions beyond the United States. This should advice you accompany your account down to a acquiescent amount of able advisors.

Next go to the NASD (National Affiliation of Balance Dealers) website and attending up your abbreviate account of able advisors. ( Here you’ll be able acquisition out your abeyant admiral plan history, authorization history and if they accept had any acknowledged or antidotal activity brought adjoin them. We’ve gone through some appealing boxy banking times over the accomplished ten years and a lot of acceptable admiral accept been sued, so use this advice as a agency of allurement your abeyant admiral some boxy questions. “Can you acquaint me what these issues are about?” Now Google your abbreviate account and see what you find; you’ll be afraid what you’ll learn.

At this point, you charge to sit down with those larboard on your abbreviate list. Here is a account of questions that you should ask.

o What is your access to banking planning? If they don’t abode the “Help me” credibility aloft their not a Banking Advisor. If they alpha talking about Managed Accounts, Sector Investing, Momentum, Technical ballad Fundamentals, or Advantage Strategies your talking to and Investment Advisor.

o What was your book of business account on March 1, 2008 and what is your book of business account today? Can I see acknowledging reports? Their traveling to ask to see your finances, it’s fair for you to ask to see endemic and if it’s down added again 25% you’re in the amiss place.

o How are you paid? There are alone three accessible answers here; commissions, asset abject compensation, or fees. A lot of will be a aggregate of the three possibilities; the one that you wish to watch out for is commissions. Commissions can actualize a battle of interest. Asset based advantage agency as your assets abound their advantage grows or as your assets go down so does their compensation. I admired that it after-effects in a accepted objective. Fees will absorb appropriate plan like a banking plan or a analysis activity about to your specific situation, and that’s fair.

o How generally will we accommodated to analysis my situation? This needs to be at atomic alert a year.

o Acquaint me about yourself. How continued accept your been in the business? Do your accept any able designations? Accept you had any acknowledged or antidotal activity taken adjoin you? What is your application and apprenticeship background? Accept you accounting any books or online writing that I can read? You apperceive all the answers, just sit aback and judge.

If you’ll chase this action you’ll acquisition the Best Banking Planner for you. You may end up with the being that you’ve been using, but you now apperceive they are able to accommodate you with the account that you charge from your new Banking Advisor.

Choosing your Best Banking Adviser can be as important as allotment your Best Physician, so do your appointment and again yield albatross for your decision. As is managing your bloom you accept to yield an alive role in the administration of your finances; break complex and accept everything.

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Choosing the Best White Label SEO Service for Your Requirements

Are you looking to begin or perhaps expand an active search engine optimization company? Do you find you would like to deliver this kind of assistance to your buyers, together with various other expert services you currently supply? If so, you will want to look into becoming a whitelabel SEO provider. With this kind of service, you are quite simply reselling SEO services you have obtained from a 3rd party, performing this at affordable prices to attract more business. Prior to you making the choice to add or start this service, you will need to compare the various white label SEO platforms to decide which you really feel most comfortable working with.

Many variables have to be taken into account as you go to make your selection of white label SEO provider. The idea should be to provide these services to numerous clients at the same time, therefore you have to make sure the user interface is extremely simple to move through. The easier it really is to add new campaigns to this interface, the more customers you’ll be able to work with any time, while offering the clients with the support they really want and need. All your SEO promotions can now be managed in a single location, which enables you to spend more time drawing in brand new clients, plus your profit demonstrates this.

To help make the practice easier still, you may decide to select a white label provider offering the option of automating your search engine marketing activities. When you have buyers who wish to have specific pieces provided every month, you’ll see that automation handles this task for you. You place an order one time and this system does the work. You can use the precious time that you free up with using an automated program to add additional customers to your database, while leaving the challenging work to others.

Additionally, you’ll want to choose a service provider offering comprehensive white label SEO reports. You’ll want to be able to demonstrate to your clients impressive outcomes, other than merely in the bottom line. As it may take time for marketing and advertising activities to truly pay off in terms of earnings generated, you’ll want to show improvement in other locations, and these reports enable you to clearly show this advancement. It could be a record proving advancement in the search engine results positioning or possibly it could be one that demonstrates precisely which marketing promotions are producing results along with which campaigns need to be eradicated. The trick is to show progress thus be sure that your white label SEO service can be of help in this area. Do not skimp when choosing a provider. If you select the correct one, your business will probably develop in ways you never imagined.

Financial Reporting & Auditing in Singapore

The Accounting Profession of Singapore

The Convention of Certified Accessible Accountants of Singapore (ICPAS) is the civic physique apery the accounting profession in Singapore. It maintains a annals of able accountants absolute mainly bounded graduates. Membership is accessible to associates of the Institutes of Chartered Accountants of England and Wales, Australia, Scotland, Ireland and a amount of added accounting bodies. Generally, above-mentioned to getting accepted as a abounding member, they accept to appear a week-long pre-admission course. Associates are appointed as certified accessible accountants (CPA).

The Accessible Accountants Board, whose board associates are appointed by the Ministry of Finance, licenses and registers accountants who ambition to practise. It aswell handles convenance monitoring, antidotal affairs and regulations on able conduct.

Accounting Annal in Singapore

All companies congenital beneath the Companies Act are appropriate to advance books of accounts that abundantly explain the affairs and banking position of the company.

The books may be kept either at the company’s registered arrangement or at addition abode the admiral anticipate fit. If the books are maintained alfresco Singapore, acceptable annal accept to be maintained in Singapore to facilitate the alertness and/or analysis of banking statements that reflect accurately the company’s banking position.

Sources of Accounting Principles

Financial Periods Basic afore 1 January 2003 The arch antecedent of accounting attempt in Singapore, namely Statements of Accounting Standards (SAS) and Interpretation of Statements of Accounting Standards (INT), are issued by ICPAS. These standards are about All-embracing Accounting Standards (IAS) adapted for assertive capricious provisions. They accommodate guidelines on the accounting abstracts and acknowledgment requirements. Businesses may abandon from such standards if the standards battle with acknowledgment exemptions accepted by law. Otherwise, ICPAS may yield antidotal activity adjoin any of its associates who are in abuse of the standards.

Rules on accounting abstracts are about accustomed by SAS and INT. Acknowledgment requirements are absolute by SAS, INT and the Companies Act.

ICPAS is a affiliate of the All-embracing Accounting Standards Committee (IASC). Compliance with IASC standards are not mandatory, but the convention supports the IASC objectives of formulating and publishing standards for acknowledgment during presentation of audited banking statements and announcement common accepting of such standards.

Financial Periods Basic on or afterwards 1 January 2003 With the accomplishing of area 37 of the Companies (Amendment) Act 2002, SAS issued by ICPAS will not be acclimated with aftereffect from anniversary banking periods basic on or afterwards 1 January 2003. Instead, Singapore Banking Reporting Standards (FRS), issued by the new accounting standards-setting body, the Board on Corporate Acknowledgment and Governance (CCDG), are now effective. FRS are about adopted from All-embracing Banking Reporting Standards (IFRS). The antecedent SAS were adopted from the aforementioned set of IFRS (formerly referred to as IAS) but with modification to assertive capricious provisions. Consequently, there are differences amid FRS and SAS.

Interpretations of Standards are accurate advice on the appliance of the accordant standards. CCDG adopted all all-embracing interpretations as Interpretations of FRS (INT FRS) with aftereffect from banking periods alpha on or afterwards 1 January 2003.

Compliance with FRS is a approved claim whereby any non-compliance amounts to a aperture of the Companies Act by the directors.

Financial Reporting in Singapore

The Companies Act requires that an audited set of banking statements, fabricated up to not added than six months afore every Anniversary General Meeting, is to be presented to the shareholders at the meeting. About if a aggregation congenital in Singapore has one or added subsidiaries, it accept to adapt circumscribed banking statements unless it meets assertive belief as provided for in FRS 27 Circumscribed and Separate Banking Statements. Currently, banking statements beneath the Companies Act abide of the antithesis sheet, assets account calm with allegorical notes. With the Companies (Accounting Standards) Regulations 2002 advancing into operation for banking periods on or afterwards 1 January 2003, a complete set of banking statements will comprise the antithesis sheet, assets statement, account of changes in equity, banknote breeze account and allegorical notes.

The banking statements accept to be accompanied by the directors’ and auditors’ letters and by a account from the admiral declaring that the banking statements appearance a accurate and fair appearance and that it is reasonable to accept that the aggregation can analytic pay its debts as they become due.

Companies which accommodated specific accoutrement in the Companies Act may be absolved from accepting their accounts audited but about accept to adapt banking statements that accede with the Companies Act.

Annual Requirements for Companies in Singapore

The Companies Act requires every company, except for those exempted in accordance with the accoutrement in the Act, to accredit one or added auditors able for arrangement beneath the Accountants Act to address on the company’s banking statements. The auditors are to ascertain whether able books of accounts accept been kept and whether the banking statements accede with the company’s records. They will again address on the adherence and candor of the banking statements to the shareholders at the Anniversary General Meeting.

Audit Exemption Starting with the banking year alpha on or afterwards 15 May 2003, the afterward companies are no best appropriate to accept their accounts audited. However, they are still appropriate to adapt accounts (and circumscribed accounts area applicable) that accede with FRS.

o Small absolved clandestine companies An absolved clandestine aggregation with acquirement in a banking year beneath S$5m is exempted from appointing auditors and from analysis requirements. Acquirement is authentic according to the approved accounting standards, i.e. the FRS.

o Abeyant companies A abeyant aggregation is exempted from appointing auditors and from the analysis requirements if it has been abeyant either (a) from the time of its accumulation or (b) back the end of the antecedent banking year. A aggregation is advised abeyant during a aeon in which no accounting transaction occurs, and the aggregation ceases to be abeyant on the accident of such a transaction. For this purpose, affairs arising from the afterward are disregarded:

  • Taking of shares in the aggregation by a subscriber to the memorandum
  • Arrangement of aggregation secretary
  • Arrangement of auditor
  • Maintenance of a registered office
  • Keeping of registers and books
  • Fees, fines or absence penalties paid to the Registrar of Companies

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Financial Failure in Business – A Case Study on How it Went Terribly Wrong


Financial abortion is the aphorism rather than the barring in ambitious ventures. Even in absolute businesses the accident thereof is alarming. A aggregation of affidavit for banking abortion exist. Sometimes these factors are aloft the ability of management, but a lot of of the times they could accept been advancing and prevented.

Over added than a decade we brash and assisted companies in growing and managing their businesses. This case abstraction highlights the accent of able banking planning and the administration of the assorted banking issues. It shows a real-life archetype of how abounding factors culminated in banking disaster.

Why Did This Aggregation Fail?

It is commonly several factors that could cause the banking atrophy of a company. By allegory the abortion of a aggregation a storyline presents itself with a cilia that runs through the assorted mistakes. We analysed this medium-sized company’s abstracts on account of the shareholders and the company’s better supplier. By that time the aggregation was already in banking ruin. The basic causes for this abortion can be summarised as follows:

  • Financial Acumen. The problems aural the aggregation started if managers were appointed with a abridgement of acquaintance and banking acumen.
  • Financial Planning. No banking planning was done – not even cashflow projections. Everybody was abstinent on sales.
  • Gross Profits. The gross margins were on boilerplate 3.3% over the endure three years. This is acutely low in an industry that operates about 20% margins.
  • Sales. The account abaft the low gross margins was to get sales – at all costs. In the alpha the sales went up to $135 actor (from $58 million) and this gave them about 35% of the bazaar allotment (in their alcove market). At that levels they could not allow to appropriately account the audience and during the endure year sales bead to $91 million.
  • Expenditure. During this time of crisis operating costs added from 2.9% to 5.7% – essentially aloft the 3.3% gross profit. This was a compound for banking disaster. Increases in costs were mainly due to arrangement costs, salaries, ball and articles that were just accustomed away.
  • Debtors. Administration absitively to allay their acclaim activity to abetment the sales. They aswell did not wish to affront their audience and were actual allowing with collections. The net aftereffect was that accounts receivable went from an already bad 66.8 canicule to 93.4 days. Bad debts added from 0% to 0.8%.
  • Inventory. Banal captivation was added or beneath connected at 43.6 days. The boilerplate in the industry is about 30 days. Administration bought added banal at discounted prices. Unfortunately a lot of of these banal items were not accomplished sellers.
  • Debt. The debt to disinterestedness arrangement afflicted over time from 15.4:1 to 28.9:1. The accounts payable (creditors) were paid on 211 canicule on boilerplate – up from 147.8 days. The industry barometer is 90 days. Absorption costs aggravate the problems and added from $644,000 to $1.81 actor during the endure two years.

The accumulative furnishings of these problems were devastating. The ratios were acutely bad. The aggregation was not profitable, aqueous or solvent. No broker or coffer was able to put annihilation into the company. The creditors took acknowledged activity and a already advantageous (but smaller) aggregation was destroyed and asleep aural beneath than 5 years afterwards the new administration took over.

How Could This All Be Prevented?

The company’s problems absolutely started if they restructured and appointed shareholders in the key administration positions. These humans did not accept the all-important business- and banking acumen. They were aswell accustomed a chargeless administration and this created attitude-, ethical- and accumulated babyminding concerns. By the time that the bearings was advised it was already too late.

In accession to the arrangement of the appropriate able humans (with a abundant lower bacon bill at market-related remunerations), a few changes could accept fabricated a big difference:

  • Financial Planning. Professionally managed cashflows could accept adumbrated area abeyant problems lie and antidotal accomplishments could accept been applied. Banking planning would aswell accept credible that the aisle of too low gross margins and too top costs are affirmed banking suicide.
  • Gross Profits and Sales. By targeting gross margins in the arena of 20% and by befitting their account levels as afore the aggregation should accept abiding there antecedent sales (around $58 million). This would accord them a gross accumulation of $11.6 actor (compared to about $3 actor currently) – added than abundant to awning expenses, accommodate for advance and bringing their banking ratios to adequate levels.
  • Expenditure. By befitting salaries bazaar related, by abbreviating ball and arrangement costs and by not giving articles abroad the aggregation could accept calmly adored accession $1.5 actor per year.

In accession to the aloft the account captivation (stock) and debtor canicule (accounts receivable) could accept essentially be improved. The accounts payable were, however, in such a bad bearings that desperate changes were necessary. The aftereffect of these changes would beggarly accession $3.5 actor was bare as alive capital. The net aftereffect of all these changes in the aggregation would accept been a surplus banknote of about $4.6 million. This was abundant to account the company’s absorption commitments, advance its ratios and to steadily abound the business.


It is hardly just one affair that causes the banking abortion of a company. Sometimes credible baby changes are all-important to access the affairs of banking success in a business. It is important for administration to accretion the all-important banking acumen, to plan properly, to adviser the banking achievement agilely (especially adjoin cashflows) and to yield antidotal accomplishments area bare (preferably pro-actively).

Copyright© 2008 – Wim Venter

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How to Read the Financial Pages

The issue of finance is very critical to the day-to-day operation of corporate organisations. Therefore, everybody needs to be financially knowledgeable. This is why it is important to review this book “How to Read the Financial Pages”, written by Michael Brett. Brett is a freelance financial journalist, former editor of the “Investor’s Chronicle” and a frequent lecturer on financial topics.

According to Brett, this text has for more than ten years been an outstanding first-choice buy for everyone who wants a thorough but friendly grounding in finance and investments. This author says stripping away the mystique from the world of investment and finance, the text is a layman’s guide to reading and understanding the financial press and the markets and events it covers.

Brett adds that assuming no financial knowledge, the text offers a valuable explanation of the workings of the financial world, from money markets to commodity markets, investment ratios to take-over bids.

This text contains 23 chapters. Chapter one is entitled “First principles”. According to Brett here, write about money, and you cannot entirely avoid technical terms. He says the simplest terms and concepts need to be dealt with at the outset because they will crop up time and again. “Fundamental to all financial markets is the idea of earning a return on money. Money has to work for its owner,” submits this author.

He says in summary, money can be deposited to produce an income and can be used to buy commodities or goods which are expected to rise in value but may not, or it can be invested directly or indirectly in the stock market securities which normally produce an income but show capital gains or losses as well.

This author stresses that there are many variations on each of these themes, but you need to keep the principles in mind and the variations fall into place. As regards markets and interest rates, Brett explains that for each type of investment and/or many of their derivatives, there is a market. He adds that there is a market in money in London and it is not a physical marketplace as dealings take place over the telephone and the price a borrower pays for the use of money is the interest rate.

In Brett’s words, “There is a market of currencies: the foreign exchange or forex market. There are markets in commodities. And there are markets in government bonds and company shares: the main domestic market here is the London Stock Exchange. Much of what you read in the financial press concerns these markets, their movements and the investments that are dealt on them.”

He asserts that the important point is that no market is entirely independent of others and the linking factor is the cost of money. This author says if interest rates rise or fall, there is likely to be a ripple of movement through all the financial markets. He educates that this is the most important single mechanism in the financial sphere and it lies behind a great deal of what is written in the financial press: from discussion of mortgage rates to reasons for movements in the gilt-edged securities market.

“Money will gravitate to where it earns the best return, commensurate with the risk the investor is preferred to take and the length of time for which he can tie up his money,” asserts Brett.

Chapter two is based on the subject matter of money flowing and the money men. According to this author here, when a financial journalist describes somebody as “an eminent City figure”, he or she probably means what he or she says because the man may be a senior member of the banking establishment. Brett adds that if a journalist describes somebody as “the controversial City financier”, “he’s probably coming as close as he dares within the libel laws to calling him a financial spiv!”

But what exactly is this ‘City’ which harbours these characters and many more? asks this author. He says it is of course a geographical area on the east side of Central London, often described as the Square Mile, adding that ‘The City’ is more often used as a convenient blanket term for the commercial institutions at the heart of Britain’s financial system. Brett educates that they do not necessarily operate within the square mile of the City of London, though a surprising number of them do.

He says they provide the financial services that oil the wheels of industry and trade. According to him, one of the more common criticisms of the City is that it is too remote from Britain’s own productive industries. Brett says whereas some parts of the City have always been international in outlook, the big change of the last 20 years is the internationalisation of even the most traditional domestic institutions such as the London Stock Exchange. “The City is a major source of invisible earnings for Britain’s balance of payments. Financial services generated net overseas earnings of almost 32 billion pounds in 1998,” he discloses.

In chapters three to ten, this author examines concepts such as companies and their accounts; the investment ratios; refining the figurework; equities and the stock exchange; what moves share prices in normal times and in the crash of ’87; stock market launches; issuing more shares and buying shares back; and bidders, victims and lawmakers.

Chapter 11 is entitled “Venture capital and leveraged buy-outs”. According to Brett here, to satisfy different financing needs, there has been rapid growth in venture capital funds, organisations that provide finance, sometimes a mixture of equity and loans, but often just one or the other, for unquoted companies.

This author says, “Because it is provided to finance unlisted companies, equity finance of this kind is often referred to as private equity. Many of the venture capital funds are offshoots of existing financial institutions: clearing or merchant banks, insurance companies or pension funds.”

He educates that another tax-favoured investment vehicle designed to encourage risk investment in private businesses is the venture capital trust. A venture capital trust needs to hold at least 70 per cent of its investments in unquoted trading companies: broadly, the same sort of company as would qualify for Enterprise Investment Scheme, adds Brett.

This expert stresses that the venture capital trust itself is much like an ordinary investment and must be quoted on the stock exchange.

In chapters 12 to19, the author analytically X-rays concepts such as pay, perks and reverse capitalism; government and company bonds; banks, borrowers and bad debts; the money markets; foreign exchange and the euro; international money; financial derivatives and commodities; and insurance and Lloyd’s after the troubles.

Chapter 20 is entitled “Commercial property and markets crashes”. According to this author, commercial property (that is, office buildings, shops, factories and warehouses) has been one of the major avenues for investment by the insurance companies and pension funds. Brett adds that it was less popular at the end of the millennium than it once was.

He says there is, however, no central marketplace in commercial property, stressing that the “market” is largely organised by the major firms of chartered surveyors or estate agents. Brett expatiates that these firms provide a range of property investment services. “They advise on property portfolios, often manage portfolios on behalf of institutions, provide valuations, negotiate lettings, purchases and sales and assist in arranging finance for developments,” adds the author.

In chapters 21 to 23, Brett beams his intellectual searchlight on concepts such as savings, pooled investment and tax shelters; supervising the City; and the financial pages as regards print and Internet.

As regards style, the book is a success. For instance, the book is well presented and the language is standard and simple, thus enhancing easy understanding of the subject matter in spite of the technicality of terms. The stylistic success is expected, given that Brett is a freelance financial journalist and by implication, a financial communicator.

The depth of research of the book is also commendable.

However, the definite article “The” constitutes structural redundancy in the title of the book. That is, the title should have been “How to Read Financial Pages” not “How to Read the Financial Pages”.

Generally, this text is a masterpiece on financial education. It is highly recommended to anybody that is ready to broaden his or her knowledge financially.